Trophies of Empire: Paul Clarkson, Black Star Window (detail)

Initiated by Keith Piper and Bluecoat (working with Arnolfini in Bristol and Hull Time Based Arts), Trophies of Empire was an artists' commission series made in response to the Columbus Quincentenary (500 years since his so-called discovery of the Americas). Artists explored legacies of colonialism and imperialism and their imprint in three UK ports, Liverpool, Bristol and Hull. Exhibiting at Bluecoat were Juginder Lamba, Shaheen Merali, South Atlantic Souvenirs & Trouble, Rita Keegan, Veena Stephenson, and Liverpool-born Paul Clarkson, whose paintings - Black Star Window, and The Witness & The Observer - developed from an awareness of the 'history of the city's prosperity at the expense of the suffering of my ancestors.'